Frank Connell, Sherlock Holmes Part II



The popularity of Sherlock Holmes became widespread after his first appearance in The Strand Magazine in 1891. This September 1917 edition of the magazine, with the cover story, ‘Sherlock Holmes outwits a German spy’, could be posted to troops free of charge.

The first two Sherlock Holmes stories, the novels A Study in Scarlet (1887) and The Sign of the Four (1890), were moderately well received, but Holmes first became very popular early in 1891 when the first six short stories featuring the character were published in The Strand Magazine. Holmes became widely known in Britain and America. The character was so well known that in 1893 when Arthur Conan Doyle killed Holmes in the short story “The Final Problem“, the strongly negative response from readers was unlike any previous public reaction to a fictional event. The Strand reportedly lost more than 20,000 subscribers as a result of Holmes’s death.  Public pressure eventually contributed to Conan Doyle writing another Holmes story in 1901 and resurrecting the character in a story published in 1903.  In Japan, Sherlock Holmes (and Alice from Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland) became immensely popular in the country in the 1890s as it was opening up to the West, and they are cited as two British fictional Victorians who left an enormous creative and cultural legacy there.

Many fans of Sherlock Holmes have written letters to Holmes’s address, 221B Baker Street. Though the address 221B Baker Street did not exist when the stories were first published, letters began arriving to the large Abbey National building which first encompassed that address almost as soon as it was built in 1932. Fans continue to send letters to Sherlock Holmes; these letters are now delivered to the Sherlock Holmes Museum.  Some of the people who have sent letters to 221B Baker Street believe Holmes is real. Members of the general public have also believed Holmes actually existed. In a 2008 survey of British teenagers, 58 percent of respondents believed that Sherlock Holmes was a real individual.

The Sherlock Holmes stories continue to be widely read.  Holmes’s continuing popularity has led to many reimaginings of the character in adaptations. Guinness World Records, which awarded Sherlock Holmes the title for “most portrayed literary human character in film & TV” in 2012, released a statement saying that the title “reflects his enduring appeal and demonstrates that his detective talents are as compelling today as they were 125 years ago.”


Statue of Sherlock Holmes near 221B Baker Street, London
Blue plaque at The Sherlock Holmes Museum 221b Baker Street, London

The London Metropolitan Railway named one of its twenty electric locomotives deployed in the 1920s for Sherlock Holmes. He was the only fictional character so honoured, along with eminent Britons such as Lord ByronBenjamin Disraeli, and Florence Nightingale.

A number of London streets are associated with Holmes. York Mews South, off Crawford Street, was renamed Sherlock Mews, and Watson’s Mews is near Crawford Place. The Sherlock Holmes is a public house in Northumberland Street in London which contains a large collection of memorabilia related to Holmes, the original collection having been put together for display in Baker Street during the Festival of Britain in 1951.

In 2002, the Royal Society of Chemistry bestowed an honorary fellowship on Holmes for his use of forensic science and analytical chemistry in popular literature, making him (as of 2019) the only fictional character thus honoured.

There are multiple statues of Sherlock Holmes around the world. The first, sculpted by John Doubleday, was unveiled in Meiringen, Switzerland, in September 1988. The second was unveiled in October 1988 in Karuizawa, Japan, and was sculpted by Yoshinori Satoh. The third was installed in Edinburgh, Scotland, in 1989, and was sculpted by Gerald Laing.  In 1999, a statue of Sherlock Holmes in London, also by John Doubleday, was unveiled near the fictional detective’s address, 221B Baker Street. In 2001, a sculpture of Holmes and Arthur Conan Doyle by Irena Sedlecká was unveiled in a statue collection in Warwickshire, England.  A sculpture depicting both Holmes and Watson was unveiled in 2007 in Moscow, Russia, based partially on Sidney Paget‘s illustrations and partially on the actors in The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes and Dr. Watson. In 2015, a sculpture of Holmes by Jane DeDecker was installed in the police headquarters of Edmond, Oklahoma, United States. In 2019, a statue of Holmes was unveiled in Chester, Illinois, United States, as part of a series of statues honouring cartoonist E. C. Segar and his characters. The statue is titled “Sherlock & Segar”, and the face of the statue was modelled on Segar.


Main article: Sherlock Holmes fandom § Societies

In 1934, the Sherlock Holmes Society (in London) and the Baker Street Irregulars (in New York) were founded. The latter is still active. The Sherlock Holmes Society was dissolved later in the 1930s, but was succeeded by a society with a slightly different name, the Sherlock Holmes Society of London, which was founded in 1951 and remains active.  These societies were followed by many more, first in the U.S. (where they are known as “scion societies”—offshoots—of the Baker Street Irregulars) and then in England and Denmark. There are at least 250 societies worldwide, including Australia, Canada (such as The Bootmakers of Toronto), India, and Japan.  Fans tend to be called “Holmesians” in the U.K. and “Sherlockians” in the U.S., though recently “Sherlockian” has also come to refer to fans of the Benedict Cumberbatch-led BBC series regardless of location.

The detective story

Statue of Holmes, holding a pipe
Statue of Holmes in an Inverness cape and a deerstalker cap on Picardy Place in Edinburgh (Conan Doyle’s birthplace)

Although Holmes is not the original fictional detective, his name has become synonymous with the role. Doyle’s Sherlock Holmes stories introduced multiple literary devices that have become major conventions in detective fiction, such as the companion character who is not as clever as the detective and has solutions explained to him (thus informing the reader as well), as with Dr. Watson in the Holmes stories. Other conventions introduced by Doyle include the arch-criminal who is too clever for the official police to defeat, like Holmes’s adversary Professor Moriarty, and the use of forensic science to solve cases.

The Sherlock Holmes stories established crime fiction as a respectable genre popular with readers of all backgrounds, and Doyle’s success inspired many contemporary detective stories.  Holmes influenced the creation of other “eccentric gentleman detective” characters, like Agatha Christie‘s fictional detective Hercule Poirot, introduced in 1920.  Holmes also inspired a number of anti-hero characters “almost as an antidote to the masterful detective”, such as the gentleman thief characters A. J. Raffles (created by E. W. Hornung in 1898) and Arsène Lupin (created by Maurice Leblanc in 1905).

In 2021 Holme’s identity as a detective was analysed in Guy Mankowski‘s Zer0 Books title, ‘Albion’s Secret History: Snapshots of England’s Pop Rebels and Outsiders’. Mankowski writes, ‘Holmes was placed by Arthur Conan Doyle in a conceptual space outside of society, which allowed him to traverse its layers at will. It was perhaps a device gleaned from his fascination with the paranormal, where Mediums are not restricted by physical boundaries. As a freelance detective often working in tension with Establishment figure Inspector Lestrade, Holmes was a master of disguise. His ability to change his appearance to blend into any situation in cause of his mission helped him personify the idea of the English eccentric chameleon, in a way that prefigured the likes of David Bowie.’

“Elementary, my dear Watson”

The phrase “Elementary, my dear Watson” has become one of the most quoted and iconic aspects of the character. However, although Holmes often observes that his conclusions are “elementary”, and occasionally calls Watson “my dear Watson”, the phrase “Elementary, my dear Watson” is never uttered in any of the sixty stories by Conan Doyle.  One of the nearest approximations of the phrase appears in “The Adventure of the Crooked Man” (1893) when Holmes explains a deduction: “‘Excellent!’ I cried. ‘Elementary,’ said he.”

William Gillette is widely considered to have originated the phrase with the formulation, “Oh, this is elementary, my dear fellow”, allegedly in his 1899 play Sherlock Holmes. However, the script was revised numerous times over the course of some three decades of revivals and publications, and the phrase is present in some versions of the script, but not others.

The exact phrase, as well as close variants, can be seen in newspaper and journal articles as early as 1909;  there is some indication that it was clichéd even then.  “Elementary, my dear Watson, elementary” appears in P. G. Wodehouse‘s novel Psmith, Journalist (serialised 1909–10). The phrase became familiar with the American public in part due to its use in The Rathbone-Bruce series of films from 1939 to 1946.

The Great Game

Main article: Sherlockian game

Overhead floor plan of Holmes's lodgings
Russ Stutler’s view of 221B Baker StreetSherlock Holmes Museum, London
Cluttered desk with books, jars, sculpted elephants and other objects
Cluttered room with fireplace, three armchairs and a violin
Drawing room

Conan Doyle’s 56 short stories and four novels are known as the “canon” by Holmes aficionados. The Great Game (also known as the Holmesian Game, the Sherlockian Game, or simply the Game, also the Higher Criticism) applies the methods of literary and especially Biblical criticism to the canon, operating on the pretense that Holmes and Watson were real people and that Conan Doyle was not the author of the stories but Watson’s literary agent. From this basis, it attempts to resolve or explain away contradictions in the canon—such as the location of Watson’s war wound, described as being in his shoulder in A Study in Scarlet and in his leg in The Sign of Four—and clarify details about Holmes, Watson and their world, such as the exact dates of events in the stories, combining historical research with references from the stories to construct scholarly analyses.

For example, one detail analyzed in the Game is Holmes’s birth date. The chronology of the stories is notoriously difficult, with many stories lacking dates and many others containing contradictory ones. Christopher Morley and William Baring-Gould contend that the detective was born on 6 January 1854, the year being derived from the statement in “His Last Bow” that he was 60 years of age in 1914, while the precise day is derived from broader, non-canonical speculation.  This is the date the Baker Street Irregulars work from, with their annual dinner being held each January.  Laurie R. King instead argues that details in “The Gloria Scott” (a story with no precise internal date) indicate that Holmes finished his second (and final) year of university in 1880 or 1885. If he began university at age 17, his birth year could be as late as 1868.

Museums and special collections

For the 1951 Festival of Britain, Holmes’s living room was reconstructed as part of a Sherlock Holmes exhibition, with a collection of original material. After the festival, items were transferred to The Sherlock Holmes (a London pub) and the Conan Doyle collection housed in Lucens, Switzerland by the author’s son, Adrian. Both exhibitions, each with a Baker Street sitting-room reconstruction, are open to the public.

In 1969, the Toronto Reference Library began a collection of materials related to Conan Doyle. Stored today in Room 221B, this vast collection is accessible to the public.  Similarly, in 1974 the University of Minnesota founded a collection that is now “the world’s largest gathering of material related to Sherlock Holmes and his creator”. Access is closed to the general public, but is occasionally open to tours.

In 1990, the Sherlock Holmes Museum opened on Baker Street in London, followed the next year by a museum in Meiringen (near the Reichenbach Falls) dedicated to the detective. A private Conan Doyle collection is a permanent exhibit at the Portsmouth City Museum, where the author lived and worked as a physician.

Postcolonial criticism

The Sherlock Holmes stories have been scrutinized by a few academics for themes of empire and colonialism.

Susan Cannon Harris claims that themes of contagion and containment are common in the Holmes series, including the metaphors of Eastern foreigners as the root cause of “infection” within and around Europe.  Raheja, writing in the Marxist journal Nature, Society, and Thought, claims that Doyle used these negative characteristics to paint eastern colonies in a negative light, through their continually being the source of threats. For example, in one story Doyle makes mention of the Sumatran cannibals (also known as Batak) who throw poisonous darts, and in “The Adventure of the Devil’s Foot,” a character employs a deadly West African poison.

Raheja argues another example of “contamination” was shown in “The Adventure of The Speckled Band,” where a widower named Roylott tries to murder his stepdaughters and murders his sister in law. The story states that a “long residence in the tropics” was a negative influence on his bad temper. Yumna Siddiqi argues that Doyle depicted returned colonials as “marginal, physically ravaged characters that threaten the peace,” while putting non-colonials in a much more positive light.

Adaptations and derived works

The popularity of Sherlock Holmes has meant that many writers other than Arthur Conan Doyle have created tales of the detective in a wide variety of different media, with varying degrees of fidelity to the original characters, stories, and setting. The first known period pastiche dates from 1893. Titled “The Late Sherlock Holmes”, it was written by Conan Doyle’s close friend, J. M. Barrie.

Adaptations have seen the character taken in radically different directions or placed in different times or even universes. For example, Holmes falls in love and marries in Laurie R. King‘s Mary Russell series, is re-animated after his death to fight future crime in the animated series Sherlock Holmes in the 22nd Century, and is meshed with the setting of H. P. Lovecraft‘s Cthulhu Mythos in Neil Gaiman‘s “A Study in Emerald” (which won the 2004 Hugo Award for Best Short Story). An especially influential pastiche was Nicholas Meyer‘s The Seven-Per-Cent Solution, a 1974 New York Times bestselling novel (made into the 1976 film of the same name) in which Holmes’s cocaine addiction has progressed to the point of endangering his career. It served to popularize the trend of incorporating clearly identified and contemporaneous historical figures (such as Oscar WildeAleister CrowleySigmund Freud, or Jack the Ripper) into Holmesian pastiches, something Conan Doyle himself never did. Another common pastiche approach is to create a new story fully detailing an otherwise-passing canonical reference (such as an aside by Conan Doyle mentioning the “giant rat of Sumatra, a story for which the world is not yet prepared” in “The Adventure of the Sussex Vampire“).

Related and derivative writings

Main article: Sherlock Holmes pastiches

Further information: List of authors of new Sherlock Holmes stories

Painting of a woman shooting a man in a room
1904 Sidney Paget illustration of “The Adventure of Charles Augustus Milverton”

In addition to the Holmes canon, Conan Doyle’s 1898 “The Lost Special” features an unnamed “amateur reasoner” intended to be identified as Holmes by his readers. The author’s explanation of a baffling disappearance argued in Holmesian style poked fun at his own creation. Similar Conan Doyle short stories are “The Field Bazaar“, “The Man with the Watches”, and 1924’s “How Watson Learned the Trick“, a parody of the Watson–Holmes breakfast-table scenes. The author wrote other material featuring Holmes, especially plays: 1899’s Sherlock Holmes (with William Gillette), 1910’s The Speckled Band, and 1921’s The Crown Diamond (the basis for “The Adventure of the Mazarin Stone“).  These non-canonical works have been collected in several works released since Conan Doyle’s death.

In terms of writers other than Conan Doyle, authors as diverse as Anthony BurgessNeil GaimanDorothy B. HughesStephen KingTanith LeeA. A. Milne, and P. G. Wodehouse have all written Sherlock Holmes pastiches. Contemporary with Conan Doyle, Maurice Leblanc directly featured Holmes in his popular series about the gentleman thiefArsène Lupin, though legal objections from Conan Doyle forced Leblanc to modify the name to “Herlock Sholmes” in reprints and later stories. Famed American mystery writer John Dickson Carr collaborated with Arthur Conan Doyle’s son, Adrian Conan Doyle, on The Exploits of Sherlock Holmes, a pastiche collection from 1954. In 2011, Anthony Horowitz published a Sherlock Holmes novel, The House of Silk, presented as a continuation of Conan Doyle’s work and with the approval of the Conan Doyle estate;  a follow-up, Moriarty, appeared in 2014.  The “MX Book of New Sherlock Holmes Stories” series of pastiches, edited by David Marcum and published by MX Publishing, has reached thirty volumes and features hundreds of stories echoing the original canon which were compiled for the restoration of Undershaw and the support of Stepping Stones School, now housed in it.

Some authors have written tales centred on characters from the canon other than Holmes. Anthologies edited by Michael Kurland and George Mann are entirely devoted to stories told from the perspective of characters other than Holmes and Watson. John Gardner, Michael Kurland, and Kim Newman, amongst many others, have all written tales in which Holmes’s nemesis Professor Moriarty is the main character. Mycroft Holmes has been the subject of several efforts: Enter the Lion by Michael P. Hodel and Sean M. Wright (1979), a four-book series by Quinn Fawcett, and 2015’s Mycroft Holmes, by Kareem Abdul-Jabbar and Anna Waterhouse.  M. J. Trow has written a series of seventeen books using Inspector Lestrade as the central character, beginning with The Adventures of Inspector Lestrade in 1985.  Carole Nelson Douglas‘ Irene Adler series is based on “the woman” from “A Scandal in Bohemia”, with the first book (1990’s Good Night, Mr. Holmes) retelling that story from Adler’s point of view. Martin Davies has written three novels where Baker Street housekeeper Mrs. Hudson is the protagonist.

In 1980’s The Name of the Rose, Italian author Umberto Eco creates a Sherlock Holmes of the 1320s in the form of a Franciscan friar and main protagonist named Brother William of Baskerville, his name a clear reference to Holmes per The Hound of the Baskervilles.  Brother William investigates a series of murders in the abbey alongside his novice Adso of Melk, who acts as his Dr. Watson. Furthermore, Umberto Eco’s description of Brother William bears marked similarities in both physique and personality to Sir Arthur Conan Doyle’s description of Sherlock Holmes in A Study in Scarlet.

Laurie R. King recreated Holmes in her Mary Russell series (beginning with 1994’s The Beekeeper’s Apprentice), set during the First World War and the 1920s. Her Holmes, semi-retired in Sussex, is stumbled upon by a teenaged American girl. Recognising a kindred spirit, he trains her as his apprentice and subsequently marries her. As of 2021, the series includes seventeen base novels and additional writings.

The Final Solution, a 2004 novella by Michael Chabon, concerns an unnamed but long-retired detective interested in beekeeping who tackles the case of a missing parrot belonging to a Jewish refugee boy. Mitch Cullin‘s novel A Slight Trick of the Mind (2005) takes place two years after the end of the Second World War, and explores an old and frail Sherlock Holmes (now 93) as he comes to terms with a life spent in emotionless logic;  this was also adapted into a film, 2015’s Mr. Holmes.

There have been many scholarly works dealing with Sherlock Holmes, some working within the bounds of the Great Game, and some written from the perspective that Holmes is a fictional character. In particular, there have been three major annotated editions of the complete series. The first was William Baring-Gould’s 1967 The Annotated Sherlock Holmes. This two-volume set was ordered to fit Baring-Gould’s preferred chronology, and was written from a Great Game perspective. The second was 1993’s The Oxford Sherlock Holmes (general editor: Owen Dudley Edwards), a nine-volume set written in a straight scholarly manner. The most recent is Leslie Klinger’s The New Annotated Sherlock Holmes (2004–05), a three-volume set that returns to a Great Game perspective.

Adaptations in other media

Main article: Adaptations of Sherlock HolmesFurther information: List of actors who have played Sherlock Holmes

Painting of a seated man, lighting a cigar and looking intently to the side

Poster for the 1899 play Sherlock Holmes by Conan Doyle and actor William Gillette

Guinness World Records has listed Holmes as the most portrayed literary human character in film and television history, with more than 75 actors playing the part in over 250 productions.

The 1899 play Sherlock Holmes, by Conan Doyle and William Gillette, was a synthesis of several Conan Doyle stories. In addition to its popularity, the play is significant because it, rather than the original stories, introduced one of the key visual qualities commonly associated with Holmes today: his calabash pipe;  the play also formed the basis for Gillette’s 1916 film, Sherlock Holmes. Gillette performed as Holmes some 1,300 times. In the early 1900s, H. A. Saintsbury took over the role from Gillette for a tour of the play. Between this play and Conan Doyle’s own stage adaptation of “The Adventure of the Speckled Band“, Saintsbury portrayed Holmes over 1,000 times.

Basil Rathbone as Holmes

Holmes’s first screen appearance was in the 1900 Mutoscope film, Sherlock Holmes Baffled. From 1921 to 1923, Eille Norwood played Holmes in forty-seven silent films (45 shorts and two features), in a series of performances that Conan Doyle spoke highly of.  1929’s The Return of Sherlock Holmes was the first sound title to feature Holmes. From 1939 to 1946, Basil Rathbone played Holmes and Nigel Bruce played Watson in fourteen U.S. films (two for 20th Century Fox and a dozen for Universal Pictures) and in The New Adventures of Sherlock Holmes radio show. While the Fox films were period pieces, the Universal films abandoned Victorian Britain and moved to a then-contemporary setting in which Holmes occasionally battled Nazis.

The 1984–85 Italian/Japanese anime series Sherlock Hound adapted the Holmes stories for children, with its characters being anthropomorphic dogs. The series was co-directed by Hayao Miyazaki. Between 1979 and 1986, the Soviet studio Lenfilm produced a series of five television films, The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes and Dr. Watson. The series were split into eleven episodes and starred Vasily Livanov as Holmes and Vitaly Solomin as Watson. For his performance, in 2006 Livanov was appointed an Honorary Member of the Order of the British Empire.

Holmes in two television adaptations: Top & Bottom: Jeremy Brett in Sherlock Holmes (1984) and Benedict Cumberbatch in Sherlock (2010)

Jeremy Brett played the detective in Sherlock Holmes for Granada Television from 1984 to 1994. Watson was played by David Burke (in the first two series) and Edward Hardwicke (in the remainder). Brett and Hardwicke also appeared on stage in 1988–89 in The Secret of Sherlock Holmes, directed by Patrick Garland.

Bert Coules penned The Further Adventures of Sherlock Holmes starring Clive Merrison as Holmes and Michael Williams/Andrew Sachs as Watson, based on throwaway references in Conan Doyle’s short stories and novels. Coules had previously dramatised the entire Holmes canon for BBC Radio Four.

Waxwork of Robert Downey Jr. as Holmes on display at Madame Tussauds London

The 2009 film Sherlock Holmes earned Robert Downey Jr. a Golden Globe Award for his portrayal of Holmes and co-starred Jude Law as Watson. Downey and Law returned for a 2011 sequel, Sherlock Holmes: A Game of Shadows. In March 2019 a release date of 21 December 2021 was set for the third film in the series.

Benedict Cumberbatch plays a modern version of the detective and Martin Freeman as a modern version of John Watson in the BBC One TV series Sherlock, which premiered in 2010. In the series, created by Mark Gatiss and Steven Moffat, the stories’ original Victorian setting is replaced by present-day London, with Watson a veteran of the modern War in Afghanistan. Similarly, Elementary premiered on CBS in 2012, and ran for seven seasons, until 2019. Set in contemporary New York, the series featured Jonny Lee Miller as Sherlock Holmes and Lucy Liu as a female Dr. Joan Watson.  With 24 episodes per season, by the end of season two Miller became the actor who had portrayed Sherlock Holmes the most in television and/or film.

The 2015 film Mr. Holmes starred Ian McKellen as a retired Sherlock Holmes living in Sussex, in 1947, who grapples with an unsolved case involving a beautiful woman. The film is based on Mitch Cullin‘s 2005 novel A Slight Trick of the Mind.

The 2018 television adaptation, Miss Sherlock, was a Japanese-language production, and the first adaptation with a woman (portrayed by Yūko Takeuchi) in the signature role. The episodes were based in modern-day Tokyo, with many references to Conan Doyle’s stories.

Holmes has also appeared in video games, including the Sherlock Holmes series of eight main titles. According to the publisher, Frogwares, the series has sold over seven million copies.

Copyright issues

The copyright for Conan Doyle’s works expired in the United Kingdom, Canada, and Australia at the end of 1980, fifty years after Conan Doyle’s death.  In the United Kingdom it was later revived, and expired again at the end of 2000. The author’s works are now in the public domain in those countries.

In the United States, all works published before 1923 entered public domain by 1998, but as ten Holmes stories were published after that date, the Conan Doyle estate maintained that the Holmes and Watson characters as a whole were still under copyright.  On 14 February 2013, Leslie S. Klinger (lawyer and editor of The New Annotated Sherlock Holmes) filed a declaratory judgement suit against the Conan Doyle estate asking the court to acknowledge that the characters of Holmes and Watson were public domain in the U.S. The court ruled in Klinger’s favour on 23 December, and the Seventh Circuit Court of Appeals affirmed its decision on 16 June 2014. The case was appealed to the U.S. Supreme Court, which declined to hear the case, letting the appeals court’s ruling stand. This resulted in the characters from the Holmes stories, along with all but ten of the stories themselves, being in the public domain in the U.S. The stories still under copyright due to the ruling, as of that time, were those collected in The Case-Book of Sherlock Holmes other than “The Adventure of the Mazarin Stone” and “The Problem of Thor Bridge“. The remaining ten Holmes stories were to enter the U.S. public domain between 1 January 2019 and 1 January 2023; since then, eight of those ten have done so.

Though the United States court ruling and the passage of time has meant that most of the Holmes stories, along with their characters, were in the public domain in that country, in 2020 the Doyle estate legally challenged the use of Sherlock Holmes in the film Enola Holmes in a complaint filed in the United States.

 The Doyle estate alleged that the film depicts Holmes with personality traits that were only exhibited by the character in the stories still under copyright. On 18 December 2020, the lawsuit was dismissed with prejudice by stipulation of all parties.


Main article: Canon of Sherlock Holmes


Short story collections

The short stories, originally published in magazines, were later collected in five anthologies:

See also

Sherlock Holmes story references

  • Klinger, Leslie (ed.). The New Annotated Sherlock Holmes, Volume I (New York: W. W. Norton, 2005). ISBN 0-393-05916-2 (“Klinger I”)
  • Klinger, Leslie (ed.). The New Annotated Sherlock Holmes, Volume II (New York: W. W. Norton, 2005). ISBN 0-393-05916-2 (“Klinger II”)
  • Klinger, Leslie (ed.). The New Annotated Sherlock Holmes, Volume III (New York: W. W. Norton, 2006). ISBN 978-0393058000 (“Klinger III”)

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